Multicomponent interventions (MCT) combine physical exercises and cognitive training and seem to be most effective in improving cognition in elderly people. However, literature is inconclusive if MCTs are superior to active comparison interventions, if delivery modes matter, and if people can transfer achieved effects to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). This network meta-analysis aimed to a) identify MCTs that were effective on physical capacity and/or cognitive function and able to transfer these effects into IADL in elderly people with normal cognition (NC) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI); b) provide a rating on the best interventions per outcome; c) evaluate MCTs' mode of delivery. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials comparing MCTs to active comparison or no treatments. Six studies in participants with MCI (n = 1088) and eleven studies in participants with NC (n = 670) were included. Five effective MCTs that were superior to physical exercises or cognitive training alone in improving physical capacity and/or cognitive function were detected, however none of these MCTs improved IADL. In people with NC MCTs performed separately or simultaneously were effective. However, in people with MCI MCTs performed separately were more effective. A framework needs to be developed to better understand the mediating effects of physical capacity and cognitive function on IADL and to design MCTs that effectively improve IADL.
This paper is the first to use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the impact of obesity on medical costs in order to address the endogeneity of weight and to reduce the bias from reporting error in weight. Models are estimated using restricted-use data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for 2000-2005. The IV model, which exploits genetic variation in weight as a natural experiment, yields estimates of the impact of obesity on medical costs that are considerably higher than the estimates reported in the previous literature. For example, obesity is associated with $656 higher annual medical care costs, but the IV results indicate that obesity raises annual medical costs by $2741 (in 2005 dollars). These results imply that the previous literature has underestimated the medical costs of obesity, resulting in underestimates of the economic rationale for government intervention to reduce obesity-related externalities.
We study early events in the evolution of plants, particularly the endosymbiotic origin of plastids (chloroplasts), and the origin of land plants (i.e., embryophytes) from green algae, using molecular systematic and genomic methods--an approach that is now sometimes called phylogenomics. We combine modern molecular methods, including gene and genome sequencing, computer analysis, and a variety of instrumental methods, with more classical methods and field work. By comparing the properties of living organisms we can gain insight into their common ancestors. In our work on the evolution of chloroplasts we have primarily concentrated on dinoflagellates, but have also worked on haptophytes and heterokonts. Our work on the origin of land plants primarily emphasizes the Charophyte Green Algae (also called Streptophytes).
Principally, this book comprises a conceptual analysis of the illegality of a third-country national's stay by examining the boundaries of the overarching concept of illegality at the EU level. Having found that the holistic conceptualisation of illegality, constructed through a combination of sources (both EU and national law) falls short of adequacy, the book moves on to consider situations that fall outside the traditional binary of legal and illegal under EU law. The cases of unlawfully staying EU citizens and of non-removable illegally staying third-country nationals are examples of groups of migrants who are categorised as atypical. By looking at these two examples the book reveals not only the fragmentation of legal statuses in EU migration law but also the more general ill-fitting and unsatisfactory categorisation of migrants.The potential conflation of illegality with criminality as a result of the way EU databases regulate the legal regime of illegality of a migrant's stay is the first trend identified by the book. Subsequently, the book considers the functions of accessing legality (both instrumental and corrective). In doing so it draws out another trend evident in the EU illegality regime: a two-tier regime which discriminates on the basis of wealth and the instrumentalisation of access to legality by Member States for mostly their own purposes.Finally, the book proposes a corrective rationale for the regulation of illegality through access to legality and provides a number of normative suggestions as a way of remedying current deficiencies that arise out of the present supranational framing of illegality. 2b1af7f3a8